Saturnalia synchronized

Temple of Saturn, Rome

What do I mean ‘Saturnalia synchronized?’ 
Well, at this time of year the custom of Christmas is loosely based on the ancient festival of Saturnalia. I discovered a great deal about this pagan Roman festival when researching the background for one of the books in the Apostle John Series. So, let’s build from the Roman celebration of Saturnalia and go from there

Roman Saturnalia

Originally celebrated on December 17, Saturnalia was extended first to three and eventually to seven days and ended on December 23.

  • All work and business was suspended.
  • Slaves were given temporary freedom to say and do what they liked
  • Certain moral restrictions were eased.
  • A mock king was chosen (Saturnalicius princeps); the seasonal greeting io Saturnalia was heard everywhere.
  • The cult statue of Saturn himself, traditionally bound at the feet with woolen bands, was untied, presumably to come out and join the fun.

Sounds remarkably like what I remember hearing in school history lessons. The medieval ‘Lord of Misrule,’ so I looked that up too.

Saturnalia, and lord of misrule
Engraving :The Illustrated London News :Scanned by Terry-Lynn Johnson, Lakehead University. This image may be used without prior permission for any scholarly or educational purpose

In England, the Lord of Misrule – known in Scotland as the Abbot of Unreason was an officer appointed by lot during Christmastide to preside over the Feast of Fools.

The Lord of Misrule was generally a peasant appointed to be in charge of Christmas revelries, which often included drunkenness and wild partying.

Sounds like Saturnalicius princeps revisited.

Saturnalia to Christmas tree

One of the earliest stories relating back to a tree for Christmas is about Saint Boniface. In 722, he encountered some pagans who were about to sacrifice a child at the base of a huge oak tree. He cut down the tree to prevent the sacrifice and a Fir tree grew up at the base of the oak. He then told everyone that this lovely evergreen, with its branches pointing to heaven, was a holy tree – the tree of the Christ child, and a symbol of His promise of eternal life.

Next step… In the 1840s and 50s, Queen Victoria and Prince Albert popularized the Christmas tree in England. Prince Albert decorated a tree and ever since that time, the English, because of their love for their Queen, copied her Christmas customs including the Christmas tree and ornaments.

Next addition to Saturnalia

Over many centuries and through many cultures the fantasy of Santa Claus (in various names) has evolved and become part of the Christmas tradition.

It began with St. Nicholas, a fourth-century Catholic bishop of Myra, (Roman province of Asia Minor, now Turkey) His parents died when Nicholas was a young man, leaving him with a healthy inheritance.

Santa at nativity
Santa Claus was never at the manger

Legend of Saint Nicholas

Determined to devote his inheritance to works of charity, Nicholas discovered a destitute father who had three daughters. It was impossible to find husbands for them because of their poverty.

To save the father from giving his daughters over to human trafficking, Nicholas provided bags of gold for each of the daughters. Using the gold as a dowry, each of the girls were married in due time. This inspiring story resulted in Nicholas being recognized as an example of generosity for all people, young and old.

And on it went...

Devotion to Nicholas spread from the Middle East into Greece and Russia, where he is still recognized as the patron saint.
In time, Nicholas began to be honored also in Europe, and then in England where 400 churches were dedicated in his honor in the later Middle Ages.

Following the Reformation, Protestants abolished the veneration and traditions associated with saints. Only the Dutch Protestants preserved the ancient tradition of a visit from St. Nicholas on Dec. 6. They referred to St. Nicholas as Sinter Klaas.
Newspaper article

'Chinese whispers'

In that game, the phrase at the end is different from the one at the start. Likewise with Saturnalia’s synchronizations.

Saturnalia was a festival honoring the pagan Roman god Saturn. Like many other ‘festivals’ over the years it was ‘Christianized.’ However, there is nothing Christian about Saturnalia, nor any of the additions which were absorbed, or synchronized into the pagan celebration.

More musings,

Susan

Cooking now, then and way before then.

cooking, assembling spices

Cooking is now quite a challenge for me. Oxygen and flames don’t mix. This means being organized. Assemble everything beforehand, turn off the oxygen and light the gas. That is what I was doing earlier this week, a bit miffed that I could no longer multi-task and continue my preparations while the gas burner was lit.

As I was working, I was thinking.

Cooking a curry

Now – I buy ground spices. (I used to have a small grinder, but now I buy the spices.)

Then – In my mother’s day, I don’t remember eating a curry, but if curry flavoring was needed, this is what was on option.

Way before then – I doubt the Biblical cooks made curries, but they certainly made spicy meals. 

spices for cooking curry

They would have had to walk to the market, buy what they wanted, bring it home and grind it… probably with a hand mill. Spices were expensive so only a small quantity at a time would be bought.

Cooking Then

Growing up in the cold climate of Scotland, my meals as a child were starchy. Bread, bread rolls (they were a treat) and potato soup. (It was made with root vegetables, primarily potatoes.)

(Now, if I am able to keep the oxygen off, there are a lot more options.)

Cooking way before then

I did a great deal of research about this so that my books were as accurate as possible. Primarily, people of the New Testament ate vegetables, usually cooked in a stew, and often flavored with spices.

Most people probably ate meat only a few times a year, generally when animals were slaughtered for religious sacrifices, weddings or other special family celebrations or visits.

(In Hold the Faith, the celebratory meal after Benjamin’s baptism was chicken. What was left over was added to the next day’s vegetable stew.)

Cleaning and preparing the vegetables.

They were washed, but homes back then did not have indoor taps. Water had to be fetched from a well, so people would have been ‘water-wise.’

When vegetables were cleaned, they were cut, or chopped and put in a clay pot. Meals were generally cooked in clay pots in either clay ovens, or ovens made from earth. The most common way of cooking food was by boiling.

ancient cooking pot

Cooking was time consuming

Bread was a staple food.

It took possibly 2-3 hours of hard labor every day to make enough to feed a family with five. (In Hold the Faith there were six adults living in the home.)

Once the dough was made, it was cooked in different ways. One way was to cook it on the hot stones of a cooking fire.  Then there was the ‘jar’ oven.’ This was a huge clay pot that was smaller at the opening in the top; a fire was started on the inside to get it hot, and the dough was put against the outer part to cook. The pit-oven was a pottery lined hole in the ground that was heated with a fire that was put aside, and the dough was baked on top of the hot clay.

cooking bread in jar oven

Cooking now

So, by the time I pondered all of this, I realized how blessed I am. I have a gas cooker, a refrigerator and a freezer. I also have a microwave.

All of these, plus a telephone (even a land-line one) would have been very useful to warn of unexpected guests being brought home. (Again, as happened in Hold the Faith, and other books in the series.)

More musings

Susan

Hold the Faith is the first in a series of five Christian, historical fiction novels. They are set in the late 1st century AD and are followed by four novellas, (only three finished.) The novellas follow the lives of some of the ‘side’ characters.

I am asking people to buy, or recommend these books as I am currently fundraising for a Portable Oxygen Concentrator. Please ignore the Amazon review status. Many of my reviews have fallen victim to the unknown bot that Amazon uses to remove what they consider reviews from friends, family, or purchased reviews. Some people who have told me their reviews have been removed, I have never met, nor am I likely to meet them. Still, I think even Amazon does not know how this algorithm of theirs works.

Link to the fund-raising page, so that you may read about my current setup and my goal.

Thank you.

Fund-raising page for POC

Mention Jesus’ birth and people think Christmas

Old Testament scroll,

However, Jesus’ birth  is not what I want to ‘talk’ about in this post. A Biblical newsletter I have subscribed to since first researching the background of the Apostle John Series poses some questions. The following are some…

  1. Was Jesus conceived by Mary and someone other than her husband Joseph or the Holy Spirit?
  2. Could a Roman soldier have been involved?
  3. What were the cultural norms of the time about pregnancies out of wedlock?

Mary was a betrothed wife. That meant she had accepted Joseph as a husband, probably drunk from a betrothal cup (since that was the custom). Then he would have gone home to ‘prepare a place’ while she remained with her family. No sexual contact happened between the betrothed couple before the husband until he returned to claim her – usually a year later, but this could vary depending upon circumstances. Once the betrothal had taken place they were legally married, and it could only be dissolved by divorce. This could have been what Joseph considered when the news of Mary’s pregnancy came to him.

And her husband Joseph, being a just man and unwilling to put her to shame, resolved to divorce her quietly. Matt1: 19 ESV

‘Just’ in some versions is translated ‘righteous.’

Perhaps, though, ‘just’ is appropriate too, because he could have publicly broken off the marriage on the ground of the apparent guilt. The consequences were ‘dire.’

“then they shall bring out the young woman to the door of her father’s house, and the men of her city shall stone her to death with stones, because she has done an outrageous thing in Israel by whoring in her father’s house. So you shall purge the evil from your midst.”
Deuteronomy 22: 21 ESV

However, Joseph ‘being unwilling to put her to shame’ had the option of a “writ of divorcement,” which did not necessarily specify the ground of repudiation, except in vague language implying disagreement.

This answers questions number 1 and 3, what about number 2?

Jesus' birth was the result of an ‘affair’ with a Roman soldier?

That is what it could seem to imply. However, the Bible has a different answer…

“In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. And the virgin’s name was Mary. And he came to her and said, “Greetings, O favored one, the Lord is with you!” But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and tried to discern what sort of greeting this might be. And the angel said to her, “Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God.
Luke 1: 26 – 30 ESV (Bolding mine.)

Does this sound like a woman who would have an affair with a Roman soldier?

God had chosen the one to give birth to His Son.

Since His Son would be the Messiah, God would not have chosen a ‘vessel’ that was not pure.

If you think that is a ‘fantasy’ and God did not ‘father’ Jesus – consider how many miracles he performed. There are also a long list of prophecies fulfilled – between 300 and 400 according to some sites. A clear list can be found at  
https://www.simplybible.com/f986-prophecies-fulfilled-by-christ.htm

Or, does the reference to a Roman soldier suggest she might have been raped?

In Biblical times women were veiled

 

Again, looking at the culture of the times, young women of good families did not go out unaccompanied. After a woman’s betrothal she was veiled.

Mary was of the house of David, the purity of the ‘line’ was important to God as well as to David’s descendants.

I prefer to believe the Bible on the subject of Jesus’ birth.

Traditional portrayal of Jesus' birth

traditional portrayal of Jesus' birth
Can you see the simple error?

Clue: Related to the custom of the day.

You can leave a comment below.

Have a safe week <smile>

Susan

Alpha and Omega

“I am the Alpha and the Omega,” says the Lord God, who is and was and is to come—the Almighty.
Revelation 1: 8 Berean Study Bible

Some translations leave out the definite article before ‘Alpha and Omega.’

What is the Alpha and Omega?

Alpha and Omega, Greek letters

: Alpha (Α) and omega (Ω) are the first and last letters, respectively, of the classical (Ionic) Greek alphabet. Thus, twice when the phrase “I am the alpha and the omega” appears it is further clarified with the additional phrase, “the beginning and the end” (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). The first and last letters of the Greek alphabet were used because the book of Revelation is in the New Testament, which was originally written in Greek.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_and_Omega

What does Christ mean, the Alpha and Omega?

Sometimes when a person hears something over the course of time, it is merely words that have always been known. Alpha and Omega – the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, but why did Christ say He was?

Is it possible He meant He was at the beginning of the Book and the end of the Book – the beginning of time and the end of time?

Let’s check.

Sometimes when a person hears something many times over the course of time, it is merely words that have always been known. Alpha and Omega – the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet, but why did Christ say that?

Is it possible He meant He was at the beginning of the Book and the end of the Book – the beginning of time and the end of time?

Genesis
Revelation, the end

The gospel of John might have a clue there…

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through him, and without him was not any thing made that was made.
John 1: 1 – 3

I was surprised to find there is some debate about what this means. Years ago when I was in Bible College it was taught that Jesus Christ was the Word of God,

I saw a short YouTube video (not linked) where two Biblical scholars were discussing this ‘controversial’ section. The concluded it was a choice of the translators to use a capital for Word.

That view does not make sense of John 1: 1
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.”

Let’s look at Genesis – the Alpha

“In the beginning God, created the heavens and the earth”
Genesis 1:1

 

The word used for God in Genesis 1:1 is “Elohim,” which is a form of the word “El.” In the context of Genesis 1:1, there can certainly be no doubt as to who is doing the creating. In the Hebrew language the “im” ending imputes plurality. Therefore, “Elohim” is the plural from of the word “El.”
Chuck Missler: from his book ‘The Creator Beyond Time and Space.

The plural aspect continues…

“And God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, over all the earth and over every creeping thing that creeps on the earth.'”
Genesis 1:26, (Jewish Publication Society version, 1917)

The Alpha – the One who became Jesus Christ

Remember John 1: 1 -3 ?

That nails it for me. The Word of God, before he was born as a human being, was with God.

In fact, when researching for Hold the Faith I spent a great deal of time studying these first verses of the gospel of John.

Does God change His mind?

How could we trust Him if He did? We would never know where we stood.

God is not a man, that He should lie, or a son of man, that He should change His mind. Does He speak and not act? Does He promise and not fulfill?
Numbers 23: 19

And another

Jesus Christ is the same yesterday, today, and forever.
Hebrews 13: 8

Conclusion

When Christ, at the end of the Book, says He is the Alpha – He was/is at the beginning of the Book.

The Revelation of Jesus Christ…
Revelation 1: 1…

The Omega

Look, I am coming soon! My reward is with me, and I will give to each person according to what they have done.  I am the Alpha and the Omega, the First and the Last, the Beginning and the End.
Revelation 22: 12

At the end of the Book, Christ repeats…

I am the Alpha and Omega

In fact, he is all the way through the Bible.

Found on YouTube…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KW1elxCB69A

A praise song.

Sharing,

Susan

P.S. – Don’t forget ‘No Evil Shall Befall You is only .99c US during the pre-release period, Which ends on the 1st of August. 

Read about it here http://www.susanprestonauthor.com/no-evil-shall-befall-you

Or buy it on pre-release here  https://www.amazon.com/No-Evil-Shall-Befall-You-ebook/dp/B07FVL99FJ

Also, on the first of August, the first novella, After the Thirty Days will be free for one day. 

These novellas are ‘the Jewish side.’ Another, the final in the series of novellas is coming later this year.

Nephilim – Angels or Men

Nephilim were as giants

There is a current ‘fascination’ on the subject of the Nephilim. I base this statement on the number of popular books on the subject to be found on Amazon… a couple even with the ‘bestseller’ tag. But does it mean they are telling the truth? I guess it depends on what you see as the truth. In this week’s blog I want to explore the subject of Nephilim from the Bible point of view.

Bible references on Nephilim

Pre-flood
Now it came about, when men began to multiply on the face of the land, and daughters were born to them, that the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful; and they took wives for themselves, whomever they chose.
Genesis 6: 1, 2 NKJV

Post-flood
Then Caleb quieted the people before Moses and said, “We should by all means go up and take possession of it, for we will surely overcome it.” But the men who had gone up with him said, “We are not able to go up against the people, for they are too strong for us.” So they gave out to the sons of Israel a bad report of the land which they had spied out, saying, “The land through which we have gone, in spying it out, is a land that devours its inhabitants; and all the people whom we saw in it are men of great size. There also we saw the Nephilim (the descendants of Anak came from the giants); and we became like grasshoppers in our own sight, and so we were in their sight.”
Numbers 13: 30 – 33 NKJV

Grasshopper in the sight of the Nephilim

The identity of the Nephilim and the sons of God is debated in Christian circles. Many say the Nephilim are fallen angels, some say that they are men. Others suggest that the Nephilim were aliens.

(The latter has quite a large following also.)

 

Nephilim, fallen angel?

 

Currently, the most popular thoughts  seem to be that they are fallen angels who chose ‘daughters of men’ and had children with them.

Interesting, but fantasy, surely.

Why… read on.

On the Nephilim

In the beginning God created everything after its own kind.

God made the beasts of the earth after their kind, and the cattle after their kind, and everything that creeps on the ground after its kind; and God saw that it was good.
Genesis 1: 25

There are twelve other verses about ‘after its own kind’ here …

https://bible.knowing-jesus.com/topics/According-To-Its-Kind

On Angels

“Where were you when I laid the earth’s foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Surely you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone – while the morning stars sang together and all the angels shouted for joy?”
(Job 38:4-7).

(Morning stars – generally interpreted as angels.)
Since according to that verse angels already existed and God created them before Genesis 1, it is reasonable to assume that they too were created ‘after their kind.’

With the benefit of modern science and technology mankind can crossbreed species. However, in creation I have not read of one species interbreeding with another. Not even mermaids. They are not real; there is no conclusive scientific evidence that proves their existence in real life. Mermaids are mythical creatures that have been a part of folklore and legends for thousands of years. (According to Reference.com)

Is it possible the Nephilim, being fallen, could breed with women?

Human beings were created ‘after their kind’ – angels ‘after their kind’ – which was spirtual. Even ‘fallen’ angels are still spiritual.

Answers in the New Testament

What higher authority is there but Christ? When answering a question on a different subject, He said this…

For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels of God in heaven.
Matthew 22: 30 NKJV

On Sons of God

The Apostle John recorded…

Behold what manner of love the Father has bestowed on us, that we should be called children of God! Therefore the world does not know us, because it did not know Him. 2 Beloved, now we are children of God; and it has not yet been revealed what we shall be, but we know that when He is revealed, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is.
1 John 3: 1, 2

The phrase “sons of God” is found eleven times in the King James Version: twice in Genesis, three times in Job, and six times in the New Testament. Other than its usage in Job, (where it possibly refers to angels) the term ‘sons of God’ refers to those who follow after God and keep His Word.

Bible. One book, many stories

Although we use our imaginations, and sometimes have ‘fun’ doing it, there are many things we cannot know. For some things we must wait for the truth in the ‘hereafter.’

Thinking again,

Susan

Identifying Signs

Egyptian signs on column

Humankind (to be politically correct) has used signs since they were able to scratch out a sign in the earth. Language developed from the signs and the featured image shows the Egyptian hieroglyphics. A lot more complex than my memory of childhood games in Scotland.

One such game was rather  elaborate game where someone would go off well ahead of the group and leave a chalk sign – usually an arrow, to indicate a change of direction. The rest of the group followed later, using the chalk signs to find the first person.

I remember an elaborate game where someone would go off well ahead of the group and leave a chalk sign – usually an arrow, to indicate a change of direction. The rest of the group followed later, using the chalk signs to find the first person.

chalk signs

This only works if the one the others is following gives accurate directions, and does not turn the opposite direction. In this such a case the sign would be misleading.

Signs can be ignored

 

Possibly the most common signs to be ignored would be speed limit signs or even a stop sign at a road junction.

(Sometimes with catastrophic consequences.)

Signs of Christian Faith

Many Christians identify themselves using a piece of jewelry – a cross, either as a necklace, earrings, or even a pin/badge.

Yet the Greek word translated as ‘cross’ is stauros which means stake.

According to The Companion Bible, crosses were used as symbols of the Babylonian Sun-god.

(Image of Shamash, sun-god, found on Pinterest.)

Last week I wrote about Constantine’s conversion.

It turns out that he is credited with bringing the ‘cross’ we recognize today into Christianity.

The most accepted reason for the “cross” being brought into Messianic worship is Constantine’s famous vision of “the cross superimposed on the sun” in A.D. 312. What he saw is nowhere to be found in Scripture. Even after his so-called “conversion,” his coins showed an even-armed cross as a symbol for the Sun-god.”

http://tyndalearchive.com/scriptures/www.innvista.com/scriptures/compare/heathenb.htm

(This information is available at several sites.)

History of Christian 'signs.'

Many of the ‘symbols’ we associate with Christianity were originally associated with Chaldean/Babylonian worship.

(I may share some of these fascinating details in a future post, but to do it here would take the post off-topic and be far too long.)

If you are interested do an Internet search on Tammuz (said to be the origin of the Tau cross.)

Early Christians' views on the 'Cross'

When writing the Apostle John Series, I spent years researching and endeavoring to walk in the shoes of those early Christians. One think I am clear on… to those early Christians the ‘cross’ or ‘stauros’ was an instrument of torture and death.

https://www.awesomestories.com/asset/view/Roman-Crucifixion-Method-of-Execution

Because crucifixion was an excruciating way to die, Rome did not impose this type of punishment on its own citizens.

(It is interesting that the image accompanying the article show crucifixion on a ‘stauros’, not a ‘cross.’)

So, to followers of the ‘Way’ the ‘cross’ would have been something to be loathed, as well as feared, not venerated

Still fascinated by research

Susan

Constantine, a true convert or merely adding a new ‘god’?

'sundog's' image, Constantine's vision?

Saint Constantine the Great, Emperor, Confessor and Equal to the Apostles

That is according to Wikipedia – but who made him equal to the Apostles?
Never, mind – that’s a rhetorical question.

So, who was Constantine?

Statue of Constantine


Most of us – or maybe these days, only some of us… have heard the story of how Constantine was the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity.

‘Legend’ has it that before a great battle, he saw the sign of the cross in the sky and was told “with this sign, you shall win” – there are some variations in the story.

Constantine's conversion

The same article that proclaimed him equal to the Apostles says…

Although he lived most of his life as a pagan, he joined the Christian faith on his deathbed, being baptized by Eusebius of Nicomedia.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constantine_the_Great

Clearly, his ‘baptism’ was ‘sprinkling.’ He could not have had full immersion baptism such as John the Baptist performed, and the Apostles did, because Constantine was on his deathbed. Because of this ‘deathbed conversion’ some modern scholars, however, debate his beliefs and even his comprehension of the Christian faith itself.

So, what about the vision of the cross? Did he see it or not? If he did, why was his conversion recorded as a ‘deathbed conversion?’

A discussion thread in a forum predominantly cited the fact that ‘baptism is one time only’. For this reason, and because Constantine knew he would continue to sin, left his baptism until his deathbed so he would be ‘clean’ when he died. 

Sounds rather duplicitous to me. (And if I can recognise it, you can be sure, God would.)

Did Constantine have a vision of the cross or not?

First, see the ‘featured’ image at the start of this post. That is claimed to be a modern version of the cross on the sun.

Be that or be it not… according to chroniclers such as Eusebius of Caesarea and Lactantius, the battle of the Milvian Bridge marked the beginning of Constantine’s conversion to Christianity. Eusebius of Caesarea recounts that Constantine and his soldiers had a vision sent by the Christian God. This was interpreted as a promise of victory if the sign of the Chi-Rho, the first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek, was painted on the soldiers’ shields.

I guess I am cynical, but that sounds like ‘superstition’ to me. (I grew up bound by superstition, we Scots are good at it, but I gave them up.)

superstition

Doing a quick search, I could not find any example of God (or Jesus) requiring a symbol for the clothing or shields of people ‘fighting in His Name.’

Conversely there are a lot of scriptures promising that He will fight for them.

The Lord will fight for you, and you shall hold your peace.” (Exodus 14:14)

“Be strong and courageous; do not be afraid nor dismayed before the king of Assyria, nor before all the multitude that is with him; for there are more with us than with him. With him is an arm of flesh; but with us is the Lord our God, to help us and to fight our battles.” (2 Chronicles 32:7)

When you go to war against your enemies and see horses and chariots and an army greater than yours, do not be afraid of them, because the Lord your God, who brought you up out of Egypt, will be with you. Deuteronomy 20: 1

After reading, and researching on the subject of Constantine, I find it tempting to believe that, for his own purpose, Emperor Constantine added his branch of ‘Christianity’ to the arsenal of gods he already worshipped. 

See these pictures of the Roman temples in Constantine’s time. Consider if he was trying to balance the beliefs of the population, then the report I read might be true that he did offer pagan sacrifices up until he was too ill to go to the temples anymore.

Credit:
Photos taken from Rome in 312 – Emperor Constantine the Great.
Panorama in the Gasometer in Pforzheim/Germany, by Yadegar Asisi and posted in the Roman History group by Karen Gronbach Grüneberg

Perhaps most ‘telling’ is Constantine’s Arch.

According to the YouTube video linked below – there is not one Christian symbol on the Arch – but there are pagan dieties.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tY9ae6SE1oo

Starting at 11.34 the Arch of Constantine is explored. (The whole video is approx. 44 minutes long.)

This information is part of the many, often contradictory, sources I sifted through while writing the Apostle John Series.

What you believe is your choice, I am simply sharing some interesting information I came across.

Susan